Singapore - English
A New Era of Vaccines
Novavax, Inc. is a global biotechnology company committed to helping address serious infectious disease globally through the discovery, development, and delivery of innovative vaccines to patients around the world.
Our vaccine technology leverages our proprietary recombinant protein-based nanoparticle technology and the immunogenicity-enhancing properties of our Matrix-M™ adjuvant.
Nanoparticles: By organizing recombinant proteins in a nanoparticle, it helps the immune system recognize that target protein from different angles1—the same way that the immune system would see the details of a real pathogen. In Novavax vaccines, there's no actual virus, just the protein; therefore, vaccines can't cause disease.
Matrix-M adjuvant: Our Matrix-M adjuvant comes from saponins, naturally occurring compounds in the bark of the Quillaja saponaria (Soapbark) tree, commonly found in Chile. Saponins have a long history of being used for their medicinal properties.2 A vaccine containing another saponin-based adjuvant has previously been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA).3
Our areas of research
The world urgently needs new tools to help solve some of our greatest infectious disease challenges. Novavax is applying our unique technology to address current, emerging, and future threats. Novavax continually conducts clinical trials, investigations, gathers real-world evidence, and development of vaccines to address public health threats. Our scientists in our research and development (R&D) programs are committed to the efficient delivery of new vaccines while maintaining the safety of patients who take part in our trials.
Our current areas of research include
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Ebola virus disease
Our current areas of research include
Pathogenic agent: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
Transmission: Breathing airborne virus-containing droplets dispersed during coughing, sneezing, or speaking among people in close contact; poorly ventilated or crowded settings; hand contact with contaminated surfaces spread to eyes, nose, or mouth by touching
- As of November 2022, there have been approximately 628 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally. Of those, it is estimated that almost 6.6 million have resulted in death due to COVID-19
- May affect people of any age group; higher risk in elderly and people with chronic conditions (hypertension, heart/lung disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer)
Seasonal influenza summary7,8
Pathogenic agent: Influenza A virus and influenza B virus
Transmission: Breathing airborne (up to 1 meter) virus-containing droplets dispersed by coughs and sneezes of infected people; virus-contaminated hand contact
- Seasonal epidemics each winter in temperate climates; year-round in tropical climates
- Annual epidemics cause an estimated 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness worldwide
- Up to 500,000 influenza-related deaths per annum
- Higher risk globally in pregnant women, children under 5 years, elderly, people with chronic conditions, healthcare workers
Pathogenic agent: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Transmission: Coughs and sneezes from infected persons; hand contact on hard or soft surfaces; follows seasonal pattern of annual epidemics, peaking in winter months
- Nearly all children are infected with RSV at least once within the first 2 years of life
- Because many infected individuals are asymptomatic or have mild disease and do not visit health services, quantifying the total burden of disease is challenging
- RSV is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants and young children, and significantly impacts older people aged 60+ years
- RSV-associated LRTI were estimated to account for between 94,600 and 149,400 deaths in children under five years in 2015
- It was estimated in 2005, there were 33.8 million RSV-associated LRTIs which resulted in 3.4 million hospital admissions for children under five years globally
- RSV-related hospitalization costs US healthcare systems $150–680 million annually
Pathogenic agent: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
Location: 27 countries in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia; 80% of cases reported in Saudi Arabia
Transmission: Direct or indirect contact with infected dromedary camels; infrequent human-to-human contact within households and healthcare settings
- Since outbreak first reported in 2012, 858 known deaths due to MERS-CoV and related complications
- Case-fatality rate (CFR) up to 35%
- MERS affects people of both sexes (64.5% of reported cases male) and all age groups, with more severe disease occurring in older people and those with comorbid conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, heart and lung disease or a weakened immune system
Pathogenic agent: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
Location: China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, Singapore, Canada, limited cases in other countries in Asia, Europe, USA
Transmission: Airborne route in droplets of saliva; hand contact with contaminated surfaces; trajectory of 2003 epidemic linked with air travel routes; distinct possibility of further outbreaks
- The 2003 SARS outbreak caused over 8000 infections and 800 deaths
- Case-fatality rate (CFR) estimated up to 9.6%
- Most patients were previously healthy adults aged 25–70 years
Pathogenic agent: Plasmodium species (five Plasmodium species known to cause malaria; of these, P. falciparum and P. vivax pose the greatest threat)
Location: Sub-Saharan Africa (94% cases), Southeast Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, Americas (ie, warmer regions of the world)
Transmission: Bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes
- There were an estimated 229 million cases of malaria in 2019
- These resulted in 409,000 malaria deaths
- Children aged under 5 years are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria, accounting for two-thirds of all malaria deaths worldwide
- Total funding for malaria control and elimination reached an estimated $3 billion in 2019
Ebola virus disease summary22,23
Pathogenic agent: Ebola virus
Location: Central Africa, West Africa
Transmission: Ebola virus spreads from wild animals to humans and by human-to-human transmission via contact with blood and body fluids or contaminated objects
- During the last half-century, there have been 43 outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Equatorial Africa
- The largest outbreak occurred in Western Africa and caused 28,652 infections and 11,325 deaths between 2013 and 2016
- Case-fatality rate (CFR) is estimated at 40%–50%
- The outbreak cost an estimated $2.2 billion to the economy of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone in 2015
Nuvaxovid▼ dispersion for injection COVID-19 Vaccine (recombinant, adjuvanted)
For healthcare professionals, please visit https://file.go.gov.sg/visn.pdf
For more information, please contact your healthcare professional.
How to contact Novavax
- Krueger S, et al. Structural characterization and modeling of a respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein nanoparticle vaccine in solution. Mol Pharm. 2021;18(1):359–376.
- Marciani DJ. Elucidating the mechanisms of action of saponin-derived adjuvants. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2018;39(6):573-585.
- Shingrix. Prescribing information. GSK; 2017.
- World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. https://covid19.who.int [Accessed November 2022].
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Scientific Brief: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/
2019-ncov/science/science-briefs/[Accessed November 2022]. sars-cov-2-transmission.html
- CDC. People with Certain Medical Conditions. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/
2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/[Accessed July 2022]. people-with-medical-conditions.html
- World Health Organization. Influenza (seasonal). Available at: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/
detail/influenza-(seasonal)[Accessed November 2022].
- Krammer F, et al. Influenza. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018;4(1):3.
- Borchers AT, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus—a comprehensive review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013;45:331–379.
- Verwey C, Nunes M. RSV lower respiratory tract infection and lung health in the first 2 years of life. Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8(10):e1247–1248.
- Fasley A, Walsh E. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in elderly adults. Drugs Aging. 2005;22:577–587.
- Shi T, et al. Global, regional and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children in 2015; a systematic review and modelling study. Lancet. 2017;390(10098):946-958.
- Gonik B. The burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults and reproductive-aged women. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2019;7(4):515-520.
- Azhar EI, et al. The Middle East respiratory syndrome. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019;33:891–905.
- Memish ZA, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome. Lancet. 2020;395:1063–1077.
- Chafekar A, Fielding BC. MERS-CoV: Understanding the latest human coronavirus threat. Viruses. 2018;1093.
- Schindewolf C, Menachery VD. Middle East respiratory syndrome vaccine candidates: cautious optimism. Viruses. 2019;11:74.
- Weiss SR, Navas-Martin S. Coronavirus pathogenesis and the emerging pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005;69:635–664.
- World Health Organization. Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002–31 July 2003. 24 July 2015. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/m/
item/summary-of-probable-sars-cases-with-onset-of-illness-from-1-november-2002-to-31-july-2003[Accessed November 2022].
- World Health Organization. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Available at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/
severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome#tab=tab_1[Accessed November 2022].
- World Health Organization. Malaria fact sheet. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/
fact-sheets/detail/malaria[Accessed November 2022].
- Jacob ST, et al. Ebola virus disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020;6:13.
- CDC. Cost of the ebola epidemic. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/
history/2014-2016-outbreak/cost-of-ebola.html[Accessed November 2022].